What is equity share?

What is Equity Share in Stock Market? Types and its Features

What is Equity Share in Stock Market? This article explains the concept of equity shares and gives insights into the different types of shares & their features.

One of the most commonly used terms in the share market is 'equity shares.' These are the primary source of capital for a company and are also known as ordinary shares. Continue reading to learn what is equity shares and more about them, the Features of equity shares, etc.

Equity shares represent ownership in a company.

When you buy equity shares, you get to be a part-owner of the company. As a holder of equity shares, you can vote in a company's annual general meetings and have a say in how the company operates.

Furthermore, as an equity stockholder, you are entitled to dividends from the company. However, it is essential to note that the dividend rate is fixed, and the pay-out is at the firm's discretion. What is equity share?

What is equity share in the stock market?

A company sends equity shares to raise capital, which dilutes its ownership. Investors buy units of equity shares to gain a stake in the company. By purchasing equity shares, investors contribute to the company's total capital and become shareholders.

Equity shareholders own the company in proportion to the number of shares. Investors can benefit from capital growth and dividends when they invest in stocks. In addition to monetary benefits, equity holders have voting rights in company-critical matters.

The company sells equity shares to the general public (IPO). An IPO is an initial public offering. The primary reason for issuing stock is to raise funds for growth and expansion.

Equity Share Types Available in Share Market

Shares of ordinary capital

These shares are issued to generate capital to cover long-term expenses. Shareholders gain access to manage segments and other operational plans. Investors who own a vast bulk of such shares gain significant voting rights.

Preference for stock options

Preference equity shares are typically issued to guarantee the payment of accumulated dividends before distributing returns to ordinary shareholders. Preference equity shareholders have limited voting rights. If the shareholders have voting power, they can benefit from the specified amount of profits and bonus returns. If the shares are classified as non-participating equity shares, they will not be eligible for benefits.

Bonus shares

When a company generates a profit, these kinds of shares are approved by investors in the form of extra stakes. On the other hand, Bonus shares do not affect a company's total market capitalisation.

Shares of rights

A corporation offers these shares to specific investors at a reduced price, which increases the investor's stake in the respective business. An organisation grants rights to shares for a set period until sufficient funds are generated to cover the company's expenses.

Work Equity

Sweat equity shares are given to officers and managers of a company. They receive the shares at a reduced price in exchange for their outstanding efforts in providing intellectual property, know-how, or valuation additions to the company.

Employee Stock Options (ESO) 

As an incentive and retention strategy, a company provides ESOPs to its employees. Under the terms of an ESOP, employees are offered the option to buy the shares at a specified price later. These shares are distributed to employees and executives who work out their ESOP grant option.

Features of Equity Shares

The following are recommended characteristics of equity shares:

Permanent Stock:

Equity shares are long-term investments. A company's shares are its long-term assets. And are only brought back when the company closes down.

Significant Profits:

Shares of equity have the potential to provide significant returns to shareholders. However, these are high-risk investments. To put it another way, equity shares are highly volatile. Price movements can be dramatic and are influenced by many environmental factors. As a result, only investors with appropriate risk tolerance levels must consider investing in these.


A company's profits are divided among its equity shareholders. In other words, a company's annual profits can be used to pay out dividends to its shareholders. On the other hand, a corporation is under no obligation to pay dividends. If a company does not make a lot of money and does not have a lot of cash, it can choose not to pay out dividends to its shareholders.

Right to vote:

The majority of equity shareholders have voting rights. They can choose the folks who will regulate the company. Choosing effective managers helps the company increase revenue. As a result, investors may benefit from higher average dividend payments.

Profits from Extras:

Additional profits made by a company are available to equity shareholders. As a result, the investor's wealth grows.


Shares of stock are highly liquid investments. Shares are traded on stock exchanges. As a result, you can purchase and sell the stock during trading hours. As a result, there is no need to worry about liquidating one's shares.

Limitation of Liability:

The ordinary shareholders are unaffected by a company's losses. In other words, the stockholders are not personally liable for the company's debts. The only effect is a decrease in the stock price. This will have an impact on a shareholder's return on investment.

Advantages of Investing in Equity Shares


Equities have the potential to generate high returns. These returns may be slightly higher than those of most other investment choices. When held for an extended period, equities are known to provide returns.

Income from Dividends

The dividend is the income that a company distributes to its shareholders from its profits. Dividend income serves as a source of revenue for the company's shareholders. It would not be incorrect to say that dividends are one of the ways a shareholder earns a return on investment.

Control Yourself

When you buy a company's stock, you gain the right to vote for it. As a result, by purchasing shares in a company, you can gain control and ownership of the company. You can even attend shareholder meetings or other important company meetings.

Ownership of Assets and Income

When you buy a company's shares, you get a piece of the company's ownership. As a result, you are the owner of the assets owned by the company. Investors can also receive a portion of the profits in dividends.

Stock Dividend

Another benefit of equity shares is the ability to split stock. Stock splitting entails dividing the shares into sections and lowering the share price, which increases investor interest. The decrease in share price helps make the stocks more liquid, and more significant amounts result in a price increase if the company performs well.


One of the primary benefits of investing in equity shares is liquidity. When you buy a company's stock, you have the alternative of quickly selling it on the exchange. The volume of shares listed on the stock exchange is liquidity.

Participate in Growth

When you invest in the stock market, you become a shareholder in the company. As a result, as a shareholder, you will be able to witness the company's growth and rise. As an investor, it is a great experience to be a part of a company that has gone up from obscurity to prominence.

Disadvantages of Equity Shares


A shareholder's dividend is neither fixed nor easy to control by the investor. The amount of the dividend is determined by the company's management. If a profit is made, investors will not receive a dividend unless such a Board of Directors proposes one. If there is a loss, there will be no dividend.

High Danger

Compared to other investments, such as debts, equity shares are the riskiest. The funds are invested based on the investor's belief in the company. Any collateral does not back it up.

Market Price Fluctuation

The market price of any equity share varies greatly. Profits from the market are always tricky to book. There are, on the other hand,

Control is limited.

Because an equity investor is a private investor in the corporation, using voting rights to influence company decisions is difficult.

Claim for Residual Damages

An equity stockholder has a residual claim on the assets and the income. The income obtainable to equity shareholders seems to be after all other stakeholders, such as debenture holders, have been paid.

Things to Consider When Investing in Equity Shares

  • The stock market is highly volatile. You are well prepared for this reality and avoid being influenced by regular price fluctuations.

  • The returns on equities differ from one stock to the next. Some stocks can provide you with returns, while others can cause you to lose money. To overcome such a situation, you must be highly selective and select stocks only after extensive research and analysis.

  • When dealing with finances, you must have a lot of patience. To reap real benefits, investors must remain deeply involved in the industry for the long term. The longer they stay in the market, the higher the returns they can earn.

  • To be successful in the market, you must be able to control your emotions. There will be times when the volatility will cause you to reconsider your investment decisions. However, in such circumstances, you must avoid getting carried away and making decisions that will result in losses.

  • When you invest in the stock market, you must constantly monitor your portfolio. When a stock is underperforming, constant monitoring will allow you to take action at the right time. With continuous monitoring, you can stay updated on all of the stock market's news and events.


Investing in equities is not easy. While most people do it through mutual funds, you should do a lot of research on the fund's performance and the fund manager's credibility before actually deciding to put your money in one. Given how volatile the investment vehicle can be, it is best to seek advice and assistance from someone with more experience, such as the experts. If you have the time and can devote the hours required to understand trading equities, or if you have a solid reason to invest in a specific company, you may be able to save yourself entirely to the same and invest directly in stocks.


What do you mean by equity share? 

All non-preferential shares are considered equity shares and are also ordinary shares. A person who owns stock in a company can vote on its decisions. As an equity shareholder, you are obligated to pay a portion of the company's profits in dividends.

What are equity shares and their types? 

Different types of equity share capital are authorised, issued, subscribed to, paid-up, rights, bonus, sweat equity, etc. The value of equity shares is expressed in terms of the face value or principal amount, issue price, valuation, market value, inherent value, stock market value, etc.

What is the difference between shares and equity shares? 

Shares are the unit of measure of the individual's ownership proportion in that business component, whereas equity is the ownership stockholder inside the entity or other valuable company component.

How to Buy Equity Shares? 

For beginners, the stock trading process.

Obtain a PAN card.

Find a Reliable Broker.

Open a Demat Account and a Trading Account.

Participant in the Depository...

If You Want to Invest Big, Use UIN.

Select and purchase the appropriate share.

Why Should You Invest in Equity Shares?

An equity fund provides investors with a diversified investment opportunity for a low initial investment amount. The main advantage of an equity investment is the possibility of increasing the principal amount invested. This manifests itself in the form of capital gains and dividends.